Research based on terror management theory (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) has shown that cultural worldview threats increase death-thought accessibility (DTA). However, very little is known about the process through which this effect occurs. We therefore examined whether the presence of DTA and worldview defense following a worldview threat was a function of arousal. We investigated this possibility using a misattribution paradigm. Accordingly, Christian participants consumed a beverage that ostensibly contained a caffeine supplement with arousing side effects, or a vitamin supplement with no side effects and then read a worldview threatening article or a control article. When given the vitamin supplement, threatened (vs. control) participants had increased DTA (Study 1) and worldview defense (Study 2). However, these effects were eliminated when participants were given the caffeine supplement enabling them to attribute their arousal to a neutral source. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.